在FreeBSD中安装Samba及基本设置 How To?

在FreeBSD中安装Samba及基本设置 How To?

作者:admin 时间:2007-04-13 分类:服务器 评论:0条 浏览:28954


1.1. 什么是Samba???
Samba ── 一个可以运行在多种Unix/类Unix系统中的软件,它向Windows客户提供文件和打印服务,就像Windows中的网上邻居一般。 Samba的主页是http://www.samba.org )。

1.1.1. Samba最新的发行版本
最新 Samba 3.0 版本: Samba 3.0.5

最新 Samba 2.2 版本: Samba 2.2.10

1.1.1.1. 下载地址/如何下载(得到)Samba
下载 Samba 3.0 版: 在 Shell 提示符下输入 ( “#” 表示 Shell 提示符 )

#fetch http://samba.te8.com/samba/ftp/samba-3.0.5.tar.gz
下载 Samba 2.2 版: 在 Shell 提示符下输入 ( “#” 表示 Shell 提示符 )

#fetch http://samba.te8.com/samba/ftp/old-versions/samba-2.2.10.tar.gz
本文以 Samba 2.2.10 为例,讲解:如何安装/配置/使用 Samba .

1.1.2. 大致了解 Samba 的组成
Samba 的组成部分有:

smbd:这就是 Samba 的 SMB 服务器,它使用 SMB 协议与客户连接,完成用户认证、权限管理和文件共享等任务;

nmbd:提供 NetBIOS 名字解析服务的守护进程,可以帮助客户定位服务器和域,如同 Windows NT 上的 WINS 服务器;

smb.conf:是 Samba 的配置文件,在 FreeBSD 中它被放在 /usr/local/samba/lib 目录中。

swat:是一个 Samba 专用的 WWW 服务器,用于通过客户浏览器配置 Samba,提供了对 Samba 的图形配置界面;

smbclient:是一个简单的 SMB 客户程序,用于访问其他 SMB 计算机共享的文件或打印资源,例如 Windows95 或NT 计算机,它的操作和 ftp 类似。

smbprint:一个 Shell 脚本,它使用 smbclient 向 Windows 计算机上共享出的打印机上发送要打印的文档。

nmblookup:用于查询 NetBIOS 名字的命令行工具。

1.2. 安装 Samba
按照 [下载地址/如何下载(得到)Samba] 的方法得到 Samba 后,就可以开始安装 Samba 了! ( 假设你把下载得到的 Samba 放在 /soft/samba 里 )

在 Shell 提示符下输入 ( “#” 表示 Shell 提示符 )

#cd /soft/samba
#tar xzvf samba-2.2.10.tar.gz
#cd samba-2.2.10/source
#./configure –prefix=/usr/local
#make
#make install
我就是这样简单地进行了安装,不一会儿,Samba 就安装好了!

1.3. 配置 Samba
安装好了的 Samba ,其最主要的配置文件是 smb.conf ,上面介绍过,它被放在 /usr/local/samba/lib 里. 我们现在就要对它进行编辑.在 Shell 提示符下输入 ( “#” 表示 Shell 提示符 ):

#cd /usr/local/samba/lib
#ee smb.conf
当然,你也可以自己新建一个你自己的smb.conf.在 Shell 提示符下输入 ( “#” 表示 Shell 提示符 ):

#cd /usr/local/samba/lib
#mv smb.conf smb.conf.old
#touch smb.conf
#ee smb.conf
反正,随你个人喜好.

1.3.1. 配置 smb.conf
我把我的 smb.conf 附上,作为参考,我在里面加了注释,你看看就会配置了!!! Smb.conf 也有自己的英文注释,如果你的E文好,不妨直接看原注!

# This is the main Samba configuration file. You should read the
# smb.conf(5) manual page in order to understand the options listed
# here. Samba has a huge number of configurable options (perhaps too
# many!) most of which are not shown in this example
#
# Any line which starts with a ; (semi-colon) or a # (hash)
# is a comment and is ignored. In this example we will use a #
# for commentry and a ; for parts of the config file that you
# may wish to enable
#
# NOTE: Whenever you modify this file you should run the command “testparm”
# to check that you have not many any basic syntactic errors.
#
#======================= Global Settings =====================================
[global] # 注释:这一部分是配置Samba服务的全局设置,有许多选项只能在这一节中定义,这些选项控制着Samba的整体。

##
## Basic Server Settings # 英文: 基本服务器设置
##

# workgroup = NT-Domain-Name or Workgroup-Name, eg: REDHAT4
workgroup = MSHOME # 注释:告诉Samba它的Windows工作组的名称,用您工作组的相应名称来替代YOURWORKGROUP。

# server string is the equivalent of the NT Description field
server string = Samba Server # 注释:服务器描述
netbios name = samba # 注释:服务器名字
# This option is important for security. It allows you to restrict
# connections to machines which are on your local network. The
# following example restricts access to two C class networks and
# the “loopback” interface. For more examples of the syntax see
# the smb.conf man page
; hosts allow = 127. 192.168.0. 192.168.1. 192.168.2.0./24 192.168.3.0/255.255.255.0 127.0.0.1 # 注释:允许访问的IP

# Uncomment this if you want a guest account, you must add this to /etc/passwd
# otherwise the user “nobody” is used
; guest account = pcguest

# this tells Samba to use a separate log file for each machine
# that connects
log file = /usr/local/samba/var/log.%m # 注释:记录文件存放目录

# How much information do you want to see in the logs?
# default is only to log critical messages
; log level = 1

# Put a capping on the size of the log files (in Kb).
max log size = 500

# Security mode. Most people will want user level security. See
# security_level.txt for details.
security = share

# Using the following line enables you to customise your configuration
# on a per machine basis. The %m gets replaced with the netbios name
# of the machine that is connecting.
# Note: Consider carefully the location in the configuration file of
# this line. The included file is read at that point.
; include = /usr/local/samba/lib/smb.conf.%m

# Most people will find that this option gives better performance.
# See speed.txt and the manual pages for details
# You may want to add the following on a Linux system:
# SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
; socket options = TCP_NODELAY

# Configure Samba to use multiple interfaces
# If you have multiple network interfaces and want to limit smbd will
# use, list the ones desired here. Otherwise smbd & nmbd will bind to all
# active interfaces on the system. See the man page for details.
; interfaces = 192.168.12.2/24 192.168.13.2/24

# Should smbd report that it has MS-DFS Capabilities? Only available
# if –with-msdfs was passed to ./configure
; host msdfs = yes

##
## Network Browsing
##
# set local master to no if you don’t want Samba to become a master
# browser on your network. Otherwise the normal election rules apply
; local master = no

# OS Level determines the precedence of this server in master browser
# elections. The default value (20) should be reasonable
; os level = 20

# Domain Master specifies Samba to be the Domain Master Browser. This
# allows Samba to collate browse lists between subnets. Don’t use this
# if you already have a Windows NT domain controller doing this job
; domain master = yes

# Preferred Master causes Samba to force a local browser election on startup
# and gives it a slightly higher chance of winning the election
; preferred master = yes

##
## WINS & Name Resolution # 注释:
##
# Windows Internet Name Serving Support Section:
# WINS Support – Tells the NMBD component of Samba to enable it’s WINS Server
; wins support = yes

# WINS Server – Tells the NMBD components of Samba to be a WINS Client
# Note: Samba can be either a WINS Server, or a WINS Client, but NOT both
; wins server = w.x.y.z

# WINS Proxy – Tells Samba to answer name resolution queries on
# behalf of a non WINS capable client, for this to work there must be
# at least one WINS Server on the network. The default is NO.
; wins proxy = yes

# DNS Proxy – tells Samba whether or not to try to resolve NetBIOS names
# via DNS nslookups.
dns proxy = no

##
## Passwords & Authentication
##
# Use password server option only with security = server
# The argument list may include:
# password server = My_PDC_Name [My_BDC_Name] [My_Next_BDC_Name]
# or to auto-locate the domain controller/s
; password server = *
; password server =

# You may wish to use password encryption. Please read
# ENCRYPTION.txt, Win95.txt and WinNT.txt in the Samba documentation.
# Do not enable this option unless you have read those documents
encrypt passwords = yes

# Should smbd obey the session and account lines in /etc/pam.d/samba ?
# only available if –with-pam was used at compile time
; obey pam restrictions = yes

# When using encrypted passwords, Samba can synchronize the local
# UNIX password as well. You will also need the “passwd chat” parameters
; unix password sync = yes

# how should smbd talk to the local system when changing a UNIX
# password? See smb.conf(5) for details
; passwd chat =

# This is only available if you compiled Samba to include –with-pam
# Use PAM for changing the password
; pam password change = yes

##
## Domain Control
##
# Enable this if you want Samba act as a domain controller.
# make sure you have read the Samba-PDC-HOWTO included in the documentation
# before enabling this parameter
; domain logons = yes

# if you enable domain logons then you may want a per-machine or
# per user logon script
# run a specific logon batch file per workstation (machine)
; logon script = %m.bat
# run a specific logon batch file per username
; logon script = %U.bat

# Where to store roving profiles (only for Win95 and WinNT)
# %L substitutes for this servers netbios name, %U is username
# You must uncomment the [Profiles] share below
; logon path = \%LProfiles%U

# UNC path specifying the network location of the user’s home directory
# only used when acting as a DC for WinNT/2k/XP. Ignored by Win9x clients
; logon home = \%L%U

# What drive should the “logon home” be mounted at upon login ?
# only used when acting as a DC for WinNT/2k/XP. Ignored by Win9x clients
; logon drive = H:

##
## Printing
##

# If you want to automatically load your printer list rather
# than setting them up individually then you’ll need this
load printers = yes

# you may wish to override the location of the printcap file
printcap name = /etc/printcap

# on SystemV system setting printcap name to lpstat should allow
# you to automatically obtain a printer list from the SystemV spool
# system
; printcap name = lpstat

# It should not be necessary to specify the print system type unless
# it is non-standard. Currently supported print systems include:
# bsd, sysv, plp, lprng, aix, hpux, qnx
; printing = bsd

# Enable this to make Samba 2.2 behavior just like Samba 2.0
# not recommended nuless you are sure of what you are doing
; disable spoolss = yes

# list of users and groups which should be able to remotely manage
# printer drivers installed on the server
; printer admin = root, +ntadmin

##
## Winbind
##

# specify the uid range which can be used by winbindd
# to allocate uids for Windows users as necessary
; winbind uid = 10000-65000

# specify the uid range which can be used by winbindd
# to allocate uids for Windows users as necessary
; winbind gid = 10000-65000

# Define a home directory to be given to passwd(5) style entries
# generated by libnss_winbind.so. You can use variables here
; winbind template homedir = /home/%D/%U

# Specify a shell for all winbind user entries return by the
# libnss_winbind.so library.
; winbind template shell = /bin/sh

# What character should be used to separate the DOMAIN and Username
# for a Windows user. The default is DOMAINuser, but many people
# prefer DOMAIN+user
; winbind separator = +

#============================ Share Definitions ==============================
[homes] # 注释: /home 目录设置
comment = Home Directories # 注释:描述
browseable = no # 注释:可以浏览?(在”网上邻居”中可以看见?) [yes/no]
writable = yes # 注释:可以写入? [yes/no]
valid users = %S # 注释:可以访问的用户 %S:当前登录的用户.
create mode = 0664
directory = 0775

# Un-comment the following and create the netlogon directory for Domain Logons
; [netlogon]
; comment = Network Logon Service
; path = /usr/local/samba/lib/netlogon
; guest ok = yes
; writable = no
; share modes = no

# Un-comment the following to provide a specific roving profile share
# the default is to use the user’s home directory
;[Profiles]
; path = /usr/local/samba/profiles
; browseable = no
; guest ok = yes

# NOTE: If you have a BSD-style print system there is no need to
# specifically define each individual printer
[printers]
comment = All Printers
path = /usr/spool/samba
browseable = no
# Set public = yes to allow user ‘guest account’ to print
guest ok = no
writable = no
printable = yes

# This one is useful for people to share files
[tmp]
comment = Temporary file space
path = /tmp
read only = no
public = yes
browseable = yes
writeable = yes

# MS-DFS support is only available if Samba was compiled to
# include –with-msdfs
;[dfsroot]
; dfs root = yes

# A publicly accessible directory, but read only, except for people in
# the “staff” group
[public]
comment = Public Stuff
path = /public
browseable = yes
read only = no
public = yes
writable = yes
printable = no
; write list = @staff

##
## Other examples.
##

# A private printer, usable only by fred. Spool data will be placed in fred’s
# home directory. Note that fred must have write access to the spool directory,
# wherever it is.
#[fredsprn]
# comment = Fred’s Printer
# valid users = fred
# path = /homes/fred
# printer = freds_printer
# public = no
# writable = no
# printable = yes

# A private directory, usable only by fred. Note that fred requires write
# access to the directory.
#[fredsdir]
# comment = Fred’s Service
# path = /usr/somewhere/private
# valid users = fred
# public = no
# writable = yes
# printable = no

# a service which has a different directory for each machine that connects
# this allows you to tailor configurations to incoming machines. You could
# also use the %U option to tailor it by user name.
# The %m gets replaced with the machine name that is connecting.
#[pchome]
# comment = PC Directories
# path = /usr/pc/%m
# public = no
# writable = yes

# A publicly accessible directory, read/write to all users. Note that all files
# created in the directory by users will be owned by the default user, so
# any user with access can delete any other user’s files. Obviously this
# directory must be writable by the default user. Another user could of course
# be specified, in which case all files would be owned by that user instead.
#[public]
# path = /usr/somewhere/else/public
# public = yes
# only guest = yes
# writable = yes
# printable = no

# The following two entries demonstrate how to share a directory so that two
# users can place files there that will be owned by the specific users. In this
# setup, the directory should be writable by both users and should have the
# sticky bit set on it to prevent abuse. Obviously this could be extended to
# as many users as required.
#[myshare]
# comment = Mary’s and Fred’s stuff
# path = /usr/somewhere/shared
# valid users = mary fred
# public = no
# writable = yes
# printable = no
# create mask = 0765
1.3.2. 启动 Samba
配置完成后,你可以像这样启动 Samba & Nmbd

#/usr/local/samba/bin/smbd -D
#/usr/local/samba/bin/nmbd -D
好了,还不快试试!!!

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